Thursday, October 30, 2014


Sensation is a form of input in humans. Types of human sensation include audition (hearing), vision (seeing), gustation (taste), olfaction (smelling), and tactition (touch).

What is the smallest distinctive unit of each human sensation? Does the smallest distinctive unit vary throughout the body for tactition? Which sensation is capable of inputting the most information relative to time? What percentage of sensory input is actually processed in the central nervous system on average?

The five sensations discussed above are not the only inputs of the human body.

What are the other human sensations? How are sensations differentiated among one another? Are there sensations of the human body that have not been discovered?

The process of natural selection favors sensational ability that detects useful changes in the environment. Organisms that are able to detect a storm coming are more likely to survive than organisms that cannot.

What existing sensational ability would maximize survival if enhanced for humans in modern society? Non-existing?

What is the difference between sensation and perception? Is one subjective and the other objective?

Wednesday, October 29, 2014


Assume utility is defined as the presence of happiness and the absence of sadness.

Imagine one intelligence lives a short life with the use of drugs, and another intelligence lives a long life without the use of drugs. Both experience the same utility. Which life is better? Why?

Is the goal of life to maximize self utility? If not, what is? Is the goal of ethics to study how to maximize total utility of all humans? What about all the organisms that are able to experience happiness and sadness?

Assume the study of ethics is to maximize total utility.

Can utility be quantified? If yes, can an optimal ethical guideline be computedIf one set of ethical guidelines output less total utility relative to time over a longer time than another set of ethical guidelines that output more total utility relative to time in less time. Which set of ethical guidelines is more ethical?

Imagine a simulated organism that believes it lives in a society with other organisms. This organism attempts to live by ethical guidelines that maximize total utility but do not maximize self utility. Since it is actually the only organism in the illusory society, it does not maximize total utility.

Did the organism in the above hypothetical scenario live ethically even though it did not maximize total utility? Could you be in the same situation? Are you living ethically?

Tuesday, October 28, 2014


What is infinity? Is infinity a concept, a magnitude, or both a concept and a magnitude?

If a task is performed repetitively in an infinite time, is the task performed infinite times? If something is performed at a decreasing rate of space relative to time in a finite space with infinite time, is the task performed infinite times? Is there more than one form of infinity? Can any operation be applied to a statement with an infinite operand to produce a meaningful result? If so, what operation(s)?

Infinity is used for both abstract and non-abstract applications. Infinity has proven invaluable in the innovation of human society.

How is infinity useful? Why is infinity useful? What are the limitations of infinity?

Monday, October 27, 2014


One intelligence is 1000 kilograms, while another is 10 kilograms. One perceives small as 100 kilograms, while the other perceives 100 kilograms as large. Small is not equal to large. This is an example of subjective disagreement due to lack of relativity.

Does language with the presence of description require relativity in order to be meaningful? Or does it depend on context? If everyone is 100 kilograms, does relativity matter when it comes to the casual conversation of mass?

An example of an objective form of description is "x is 10 kilograms". Assuming any description can be expressed in objective rather than subjective form, and subjective description requires the coexistence of relativity in various situations.

Why does description in subjective form exist? Is the expression of the objective form of description more efficient than the expression of the subjective form? If so, does the subjective form of description have a purpose in language expression?

Is there a function for the optimal proportion of subjective to objective description in a society given various parameters? What are the parameters?


Imagine a subjective reality that is simulated by alien intelligence. Such a simulation could alter that subjective reality causing any intelligence generated by the simulation to be deceived from objective reality. Assuming the alien intelligence has complete control over the simulation. This deceived intelligence could not rely on perception for objective experiment, therefore this deceived intelligence could not be certain of anything.

Does this argument disable all certainty?

If the above scenario is plausible. The alien intelligence could also be in a simulation, therefore that alien intelligence could also be deceived by another intelligence.

Assuming infinite space and time. Could there be an infinite chain of simulated realities?

Imagine there is a universal logic that all intelligence can derive from any series of perceptions. This would infer that universal logic to be an objective certainty.

Could an objective certainly such as the hypothetical one above be known? What if an intelligence experienced numerous occasions of other isolated intelligences that derived the same rules of logic?

What if all intelligence had no doubt that something was certain? Does there require an intelligence aware of objectivity in order for there to be objectivity?

Is there any answer to any of the above questions that is certain? Can there be certainty that nothing is certain?