Friday, December 19, 2014


The concept of input and output is used as a tool for thinking about processes.

What happens in-between input and output?

Computer programs take input from peripherals (keyboard, mouse, etc) and files. Then manipulate that input to output information (to the monitor) or instructions (to another program or machine).

To what other processes could the idea of input and output be used?

How about in a biological sense? Could you treat incoming stimuli (such as vision and audition) as input and outgoing actions (such as movement and speaking) as output?

Do the above examples of the application of input and output hint at a similarity between computers and humans? If so, then does that mean that both the CPU (central processing unit) and the CNS (central nervous system) serve the same purpose in a way?

Tuesday, December 2, 2014


Generalization or specialization?...for work?...for play?...for strategy?...for life?

Is generalization or specialization valued to a higher degree in modern society? Is the answer the same for ancient society? If not, what changed? Will there be a point in the future in which specialization is absolutely necessary for success?

Would you rather generalize or specialize? Why?

Do generalists make superior leaders? Do specialists make superior teachers in that which they specialize?

Imagine two intelligences that perform the same task. One intelligence is a complete specialist in that task. The other intelligence is almost a complete specialist but also has some general knowledge.

Which intelligence in the above scenario is better at the task? Is it true that a complete specialist can perform the specialty task with maximum efficiency? Does non-specialized knowledge in a task distract the performance of that task?

Sunday, November 16, 2014


What does it mean to exist?...does meaning exist?

Why does existence exist?...does existence exist?

Do multiple perceptions of the same object imply multiple existences? Does there exist a non-illusory perception? Does an illusory perception allow for the certainty of existence? Does variance in perception allow for the certainty of existence? Does a particular existence last a finite or an infinite time?

Assuming infinite time and space.

Does there exist an exact copy of earth? Does there exist infinite copy's? Does there exist an exact copy of this universe that will not exist soon? Does there exist an exact copy of this universe that will always exist?

Thursday, November 13, 2014

End of innovation

When will scientific knowledge plateau? When will the rate of technological growth flatten? Which will come first? Can technology progress without the aid of a theoretical framework? Will abstract theory be last pursuit of knowledge? Will innovation be limited by computational power or by the creativity required to break free from traditional methodology? How will various areas of study change due to the progression of underlining theory? In general, will the framework of knowledge condense or expand?

Perhaps the question of priority is how the end of innovation will affect society. Will society collapse due to the boredom of living in a predictable environment? Or will society thrive with the power to control the environment?

Will the end of innovation equate to the end of exploration?

Tuesday, November 11, 2014


What is intelligence? What are the parameters of intelligence? Does intelligence vary relative to environment? Is there more than one type of intelligence? Is intelligence quantifiable? Is intelligence a combination of reasoning, spacial, and artistic ability? What about interpersonal and intrapersonal ability?

How does creativity relate to intelligence? Is creativity a sub-measure of intelligence? Or is creativity a product of intelligence?

How does computational ability relate to intelligence? Are the two measures correlated?

If intelligence is quantifiable, can there exist a maximum intelligence? Would maximum intelligence require infinite resources and/or time/space?

Wednesday, November 5, 2014

End of humanity

How will humanity end?...depleted resources?...artificial intelligence?...alien intelligence?...disease?...big crunch?...supernova?...super volcano?...nuclear war?...other environmental phenomenon?...the ending of humanity's simulated existence? Would humanity die if all the biological parts of every human were transformed into robotic parts? What about if over half of the biological parts were transformed into robotic parts? How else could humanity end?

When will humanity end?...tomorrow?...10 years?...100 years?...1000 years?...a million years?...a billion years?...never? Is it possible that humanity could never end?

Where will the last human die? ship?...exoplanet?...blackhole?...another galaxy?...another universe?...another dimension?

Which combination of answers to the above questions is the most probable? Can such a calculation be made?

Sunday, November 2, 2014


Language is a means of communication. Without language, all intelligent forms would function independently of each other...and of themselves. Without language, intelligence could not document experience or even think. Therefore there would not be intelligence at all. Assuming perception is not considered a subjective language.

Is the previous argument refutable? Is perception considered a subjective language?

Language is a tool to add meaning to meaningless things. So, if there were no language, would everything be meaningless? Does language require meaning to create meaning?

For example, the definition of language would be meaningless if the words which represented the definition were meaningless themselves. Obviously language is possible or else this would not be written. Since language is possible and requires previous meaning, then there must be original meaning. Either objective or subjective to perception.

Is there an original meaning? What is the ultimate origin of language?

Saturday, November 1, 2014


Is computational ability limited?

If the universe has a finite amount of matter and computation requires matter than it would appear that computational ability is finite. Even if the universe has infinite matter, it would take an infinite time to collect. Therefore computational ability is limited.

If computational ability is limited, what can be computed? How about a simulation of our universe?
A simulation of the universe would require at least the amount of matter in the universe to be accurate. Using approximations would result in significant changes over time.

Could a somewhat isolated system such as our solar system or perhaps our galaxy be simulated? Would the simulation be able to predict the future?

Quantum physics is based on the idea of inherent uncertainty at sub-atomic levels. The presence of randomness in physical laws would disallow an accurate simulation of the universe. This does not mean simulations of the universe cannot be useful. Methods used to obtain approximate models of various systems has already been demonstrated.

Besides physical simulations, what else could be computed? What about the answer to mathematical questions? Assuming a general formula is not found, prime numbers of what magnitude can be found?

Does N=NP?

Thursday, October 30, 2014


Sensation is a form of input in humans. Types of human sensation include audition (hearing), vision (seeing), gustation (taste), olfaction (smelling), and tactition (touch).

What is the smallest distinctive unit of each human sensation? Does the smallest distinctive unit vary throughout the body for tactition? Which sensation is capable of inputting the most information relative to time? What percentage of sensory input is actually processed in the central nervous system on average?

The five sensations discussed above are not the only inputs of the human body.

What are the other human sensations? How are sensations differentiated among one another? Are there sensations of the human body that have not been discovered?

The process of natural selection favors sensational ability that detects useful changes in the environment. Organisms that are able to detect a storm coming are more likely to survive than organisms that cannot.

What existing sensational ability would maximize survival if enhanced for humans in modern society? Non-existing?

What is the difference between sensation and perception? Is one subjective and the other objective?

Wednesday, October 29, 2014


Assume utility is defined as the presence of happiness and the absence of sadness.

Imagine one intelligence lives a short life with the use of drugs, and another intelligence lives a long life without the use of drugs. Both experience the same utility. Which life is better? Why?

Is the goal of life to maximize self utility? If not, what is? Is the goal of ethics to study how to maximize total utility of all humans? What about all the organisms that are able to experience happiness and sadness?

Assume the study of ethics is to maximize total utility.

Can utility be quantified? If yes, can an optimal ethical guideline be computedIf one set of ethical guidelines output less total utility relative to time over a longer time than another set of ethical guidelines that output more total utility relative to time in less time. Which set of ethical guidelines is more ethical?

Imagine a simulated organism that believes it lives in a society with other organisms. This organism attempts to live by ethical guidelines that maximize total utility but do not maximize self utility. Since it is actually the only organism in the illusory society, it does not maximize total utility.

Did the organism in the above hypothetical scenario live ethically even though it did not maximize total utility? Could you be in the same situation? Are you living ethically?

Tuesday, October 28, 2014


What is infinity? Is infinity a concept, a magnitude, or both a concept and a magnitude?

If a task is performed repetitively in an infinite time, is the task performed infinite times? If something is performed at a decreasing rate of space relative to time in a finite space with infinite time, is the task performed infinite times? Is there more than one form of infinity? Can any operation be applied to a statement with an infinite operand to produce a meaningful result? If so, what operation(s)?

Infinity is used for both abstract and non-abstract applications. Infinity has proven invaluable in the innovation of human society.

How is infinity useful? Why is infinity useful? What are the limitations of infinity?

Monday, October 27, 2014


One intelligence is 1000 kilograms, while another is 10 kilograms. One perceives small as 100 kilograms, while the other perceives 100 kilograms as large. Small is not equal to large. This is an example of subjective disagreement due to lack of relativity.

Does language with the presence of description require relativity in order to be meaningful? Or does it depend on context? If everyone is 100 kilograms, does relativity matter when it comes to the casual conversation of mass?

An example of an objective form of description is "x is 10 kilograms". Assuming any description can be expressed in objective rather than subjective form, and subjective description requires the coexistence of relativity in various situations.

Why does description in subjective form exist? Is the expression of the objective form of description more efficient than the expression of the subjective form? If so, does the subjective form of description have a purpose in language expression?

Is there a function for the optimal proportion of subjective to objective description in a society given various parameters? What are the parameters?


Imagine a subjective reality that is simulated by alien intelligence. Such a simulation could alter that subjective reality causing any intelligence generated by the simulation to be deceived from objective reality. Assuming the alien intelligence has complete control over the simulation. This deceived intelligence could not rely on perception for objective experiment, therefore this deceived intelligence could not be certain of anything.

Does this argument disable all certainty?

If the above scenario is plausible. The alien intelligence could also be in a simulation, therefore that alien intelligence could also be deceived by another intelligence.

Assuming infinite space and time. Could there be an infinite chain of simulated realities?

Imagine there is a universal logic that all intelligence can derive from any series of perceptions. This would infer that universal logic to be an objective certainty.

Could an objective certainly such as the hypothetical one above be known? What if an intelligence experienced numerous occasions of other isolated intelligences that derived the same rules of logic?

What if all intelligence had no doubt that something was certain? Does there require an intelligence aware of objectivity in order for there to be objectivity?

Is there any answer to any of the above questions that is certain? Can there be certainty that nothing is certain?